Signs of Endometriosis and its Treatment

Symptoms of Endometriosis and its Cure

Endometriosis is defined as a growth of endometrium outside of the uterus. It most often occurs in European American women of childbearing age. And its major complication is infertility.

This guideline will educate you about the different signs and symptoms for this female reproductive health problem and show you possible treatments as well.

Endometriosis is a condition in which endometrial tissue is found in locations other than the inner surface of the uterus. The mostly likely sites of growth include the bladder, ovaries, fallopian tubes, bowel, and broad ligament. It’s a chronic disease that affects women of reproductive age. It’s a major cause of pain and infertility. Endometriosis can also lead to other conditions like adhesions and scarring of tissue that entraps the reproductive organs.

According to studies, there is a high incidence among patients who bear children late and among those who have few children. There also appears to be familial disposition to endometriosis. Other factors that may suggest risk include a shorter menstrual cycle (less than every 27 days), flow longer than 7 days, outflow obstruction, and younger age at menarche.

The exact cause of endometriosis is unknown but several theorized have been formulated. Some theorize that it is caused from embryonic epithelial cells itself. The retrograde menstruation theory on the other hand suggests that the backflow of menstrual fluid through the uterine tubes during menstruation develops into endometriosis. While others believe that the spread of endometrial implants by way of lymphatic or vascular system causes endometriosis.

Pathophysiology

Endometrial tissue is present outside of the uterus and responds to hormonal influence of menstrual cycle. However, blood (that normally is shed from intrauterine endometrium) can not escape and builds up causing scarring and further growth of endometriosis. Bleeding then results, which lead to inflammation and pain in tissues. Infertility associated with endometriosis may occur from the mechanical blockage of the tubes caused by endometrial implants.

Signs and symptoms

  • Painful and difficult urination during periods
  • Painful bowel movement during periods
  • Dyspareunia (pain during intercourse)
  • Tender masses that are palpable
  • Low resistance to infection
  • Dysmenorrhea (increasingly painful periods)
  • Pelvic tenderness
  • Chronic fatigue
  • Premenstrual spotting
  • Heavy periods
  • Diarrhea
  • Constipation
  • Nausea
  • Repeated miscarriage

Diagnostic tests

  • Diagnosis is made by laparoscopy.
    Laparascopic examination confirms the diagnosis and helps stage the disease. In stage 1, patients have minimal lesions; stage 2, mild involvement; stage 3, moderate involvement; and stage 4, extensive involvement and dense adhesions.>  
  • CBC to identify low hemoglobin and hematocrit and rule out infection.
  • Pelvic ultrasonography

Medical intervention

  • Pharmacologic management
    Medications include analgesic for pain to inhibiting prostaglandin synthesis; hormone therapy; gonadotropin-releasing hormone to raise estrogen and progesterone levels to control bleeding and danazol to induce amenorrhea.  
  • Surgical management
    If conservative measures are not helpful, surgery may be necessary to relive pain and enhance the possibility of pregnancy. Laparoscopy may be used to cut using high frequency current the endometrial implants and release adhesions.  

 

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