Types of Diabetes Insipidus

Causes and Treatment of Diabetes Insipidus

The person who suffers from Diabetes Insipidus is likely to urinate frequently, sometimes even at night time which may disrupt sleep and thereby cause bedwetting. The causes and treatment of diabetes Insipidus varies with each type. There are four types of diabetes Insipidus. People feel dehydrated; hence drink more water and thus more urination.

Basically there are 4 types of Diabetes Insipidus

Central DI- it is the most common and also most serious form of DI. It occurs because of the damage to the pituitary gland which may be due to surgery, infection, tumour, head injury or may be genetic disorders. It disrupts the normal storage and release of ADH (Antidiuretic Hormone). In order to treat this disease a synthetic hormone called desmopressin is given in the form of an injection, a nasal spray or pill. When the patient is given this, he should drink liquids only when it is necessary and not at all other times. This drug helps to prevent water excretion and so now the water can easily be build up in the body as the kidneys will make less of urine.

Nephrogenic DI- There are times when it is not possible to discover the cause of this disease. But most of the times, it occurs when the kidneys are not able to respond to ADH which may be because of various chronic disorders like sickle cell diseases, failure of the kidneys, partial blockage of the ureters, inherited genetic disorders. But most commonly it is an acquired form of disease. Sometimes it may occur because of the side effect of various medications most common such drug is Lithium. In order to treat the disease hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) and amiloride is given in combination. The two in combination are also available under the name of Moduretic. But here too, the patient should not drink excessive fluids rather only when there is a need.

Dispogenic DI- It occurs because of the damage which may occur in the thirst mechanism which is located in the hypothalamus. This leads to excessive thirst and thus fluid intake increases and thereby ADH secretion is suppressed and urination increases. It can lead to water intoxication – a condition which can cause serious damage to the brain as it leads to the lowering of sodium concentration in the blood. If it is not treated on time it can prove to be fatal also.

Gestational DI- This type of diabetes occurs only when the women is pregnant. Though it does not have any effect on the unborn child but it needs to be treated early. The disease gets resolved after the baby is born but the women who suffer from Gestational diabetes also run the risk of developing Type2 diabetes later in life. It occurs when an enzyme made by the placenta destroys the ADH in the mother. It can be treated with desmopressin but sometimes because of an abnormality in the thirst mechanism it should not be taken rather consult the physician.

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